But hey, whatever this is a comedy, who pays attention to the title car… He is also green like the ‘Green Man,’ which is the special healing color attributed to many things surrounding the serpent cult — such as the Emerald Tablet, the color of initiation into Gnostic mysteries associated with the Masons, and the Green Glass of the Grail. The old system of Roman rule finally began to crumble. This in itself points out that both Robin and John were seen to each have their own followers very much like Jesus and John. Other elements of Robin’s life and especially his death show an ancient link: “Curiously the ballad of Robin Hood’s Death also has a ritualistic element, with foreknowledge and ritual ‘banning’ and a death by bleeding, which is suspiciously close to the ritualistic dismemberment of other European and Asiatic Springtime gods and heroes such as Tammuz, Adonis and Osiris. Ironically called ‘Sir Robin the Brave,’ though he couldn’t be more cowardly. The second act is a long one with the entire show lasting for over two hours. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. In the connected tales of Robin Goodfellow, the ‘trickster of the woods’ also known as Puck, there is also the link of Sib, the fairy who lives in the hillside and is linked as being a ‘serpent spirit’ of healing. These Scythians also brought many of the serpent related traditions I had previously found associated with Arthur in The Serpent Grail — including the worship of Uther/Zeus and the plunging of the blood soaked sword into and out of the ground as an offering to the Earth Goddess. While traveling through the forest of Ewing with his faithful minstrels, he comes across a … The person who might be the historical basis for the Arthurian legends could have lived in the 5th to 7th century, and 932 is right around the reign of Æthelstan, who was a king of the Anglo-Saxons and the first to proclaim himself King of the English in 927. You can attack them but they are extremely difficult to defeat at low or medium level. While traveling through the forest of Ewing with his faithful minstrels, he comes across a giant three-headed knight who tries to kill him. King Arthur, Hiccoughing Guard, Three-Headed Knight, Screenwriter John Cleese ... Sir Robin, Concorde, Roger, Maynard, Guard, Screenwriter Terry Jones Sir Bedevere, Three-Headed Knight, Prin, Dennis's Mother, Director, Screenwriter Michael Palin Sir Galahad, King, Knight, 1st Soldier with a Keen Interest in Birds, Dennis, Screenwriter It was now time to move forward historically from the 5th century history to the medieval period. As we have shown in The Serpent Grail, the Grail on the ‘first level’ or venom, is not place specific. “Britain was near to death until Stilicho arrived, and that with the Saxons defeated, the seas were safer and the Picts were broken, thereby making Britain secure.” So wrote the early Christian poet and historian, Claudian, in 399 AD. “All For One” – King Arthur, Historian, Galahad, Bedevere, Sir Robin, Lancelot “Knights of the Round Table / The Song That Goes Like This” – King Arthur, Lady of The Lake, Company “Find Your Grail” – Lady of The Lake, King Arthur, Company “Run Away” – French Taunter, King Arthur, Sir Robin, Lancelot, Bedevere, Patsy, Company Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1975) John Cleese as Second Swallow-Savvy Guard, The Black Knight, Peasant 3, Sir Launcelot the Brave, Taunting French Guard, Tim the Enchanter © 2017 Worldnews Media LLC. This British force comprised six units of cavalry and three of infantry, a unique mobile field army whose method of fighting was influenced by the Scythian warrior-elite who had been brought to Britain by the Romans. It’s no surprise to also discover that the Templars are very much associated with Robin, and many of the tales of Robin also match in format those of King Arthur. But would they have understood the idea of the Grail as the ‘serpent people’ we discovered in our book would have understood it? It is believed by many that the crescent shape of Robin’s bow recalls the crescent moon and horns of the pagan ‘Horned God,’ as does the horn Robin uses to call his people together. KING ARTHUR (Late 30s-60s. The fact remains that Christianity was stomping all over old pagan beliefs, rewriting tales that had existed for hundreds of years. Strange characters seen hiding in foliage, peeping out like messengers from the past. This balance of power continued, and in 417 AD the units of Comes Brittaniarum partially reoccupied the Saxon forts along the south-east coast. King Arthur and Sir Bedevere go one way, Sir Robin and his minstrels go through the dark woods, and Sir Gallahad ends up in the Castle Anthrax. It is seen clearly in the fact that the ‘plays’ of old, enacted by local people and paraded through streets, have changed titles across time and location. It is a bit like a homecoming for Kasidy Devlin, who plays one of King Arthur’s noble knights in the Tony Award-winning “Monty Python's Spamalot” … Shop high-quality unique Lancelot T-Shirts designed and sold by artists. The movie is supposedly set in 932 A.D., and, of course, the story is King Arthur, which is quasi-fictitious anyway. King Arthur Flour, founded in 1790, is the oldest flour company in the United States. On the way, Arthur battles the Black Knight who, despite having had all his limbs chopped off, insists he can still fight. Three questions. On Marlborough Downs in Wiltshire there is a huge earthwork, built by a British chieftain between 2900—2500 BC and later used by the Romans and Saxons. Standby: John Bolton (King Arthur, Sir Lancelot, Sir Dennis Galahad, Sir Robin, Sir Bedevere), James Ludwig (Sir Robin, Sir Bedevere, Patsy, Historian, Not Dead Fred, Prince Herbert, Sir Lancelot) and Darlene Wilson (The Lady of the Lake) Sir Robin is the pentagonist in Monty Python and the Holy Grail. As many have previously stated there are strong links between the origins of Robin Hood and the Green Man, who is also the ancient Egyptian god Osiris and the Greek-Roman god Dionysus/Bacchus, and so we should hope to find something of interest in the many stories surrounding this enigmatic character. After they read the location of the Holy Grail, King Arthur and his knights had to cross the bridge. In Mercia and the two Anglias - plague, with a 50% chance of pestilence and famine coming out of the Northwest at twelve miles per hour. Green Men sprang up in every sacred Christian place. So Britain became an autonomous state within the Empire, especially after the sacking of Rome by Alaric’s Goths in 410. As Fran and Geoff Doel point out in their book Robin Hood: Outlaw or Greenwood Myth, “the origin of Robin Hood was obscure … suggests a mythological or folklore origin.”. Tammuz, Adonis and Osiris are vegetation gods of greenness. Percival’s natural prowess, ultimately led him to King Arthur’s court where he immediately set off in pursuit of a knight who had offended Queen Guinevere. Etymologically Robin comes from the Norman ‘Robert,’ a form of the Germanic Hrodebert and it originally meant ‘famous’ or ‘bright’ or even and more pertinently ‘to shine.’ This is and has always been an indication of one who has achieved illumination or enlightenment. Arthur comes into the scene, cutting off the knight’s arms and legs. Luckily, he manages to escape when the three heads start arguing on whether they should kill him or not. Yet because of his upbringing, Percival was one of the most gracious and innocent of the Knights of the Round Table. There probably was an Ambrosius, an Arthur and a Vortigern, and they doubtless fought great battles and overcame terrible troubles. In about 402 AD, Stilicho, the Vandal Regent of Rome, needed the remainder of his troops back in Rome to defend the homeland against the invading Goths. Vortigern’s answer to his new Norse problem was to invite yet more foreigners to settle in the country, creating for them settlements called foederati. They fought well, and in all probability, aided the Britons with training in their warrior ways. Later on after reuniting with Arthur and the other knights, he is killed when he tries to answer the three questions to the old man at the bridge. GALAHAD. As with most folklore there is symbolism, myth, legend and probably some element of a real origin. The Romans had brought the Scythians to Britain, and these Scythians also brought with them their cultural belief systems. Indeed Osiris himself in the Pyramid Texts at Saqqara is called the ‘Great Green’ and often appears green skinned as a symbol of ‘resurrection and life.’ The battle between Osiris and Set seems all the more familiar now in the struggle that ensues between Robin and his archrival the Sheriff of Nottingham. King Arthur meets the Knights who say Ni, who demand a shrubbery. The economy collapsed, and by 461 Vortigern the Great was dead. He is a researcher, historian and propaganda expert based in the UK. Often hath his pills cured our villeins when they ate too much pork, and my mother — rest her soul — said that naught under the sun was like his lectuary of Saint Evremond.”, Peter the Doctor speaks, “I deserve well of all my patients, but,” — and his eyes flashed — “that great swinehead oaf of a hermit monk — Tuck by name, and would that I could tuck him in the deepest, darkest hole in Windleswisp marsh! Available in a range of colours and styles for men, women, and everyone. Chris Mahle as Sir Bedevere, Michael Monagle as King Arthur, Joey McDaniel as Patsy, Josiah Frampton as Sir Robin and Nick Kenrick as Sir Galahad … What we also find however in some of the earlier tales is that Robin Hood and Little John – like Jesus and John the Baptist – were equals. It's a small place where King Arthur is surrounded by Brotherhood of Steel servants and men in T-51b power armor. This left Britain militarily vulnerable and weak, and by 410 the Anglo-Saxons were mounting a terrible invasion that set the countryside alight. With his eyes as wide and soft as a cow’s he looked as innocent as a mawkin, and asked me this and that about the cures which I had made, and ever he seemed the more to marvel and to gape at my wisdom and my power. Shop high-quality unique Sir King Arthur T-Shirts designed and sold by artists. By the end of May, Kasidy Devlin will have a Broadway show record — for playing Sir Robin in “Monty Python’s Spamalot.” Theater Lied Center for Performing Arts' full 2018-19 season I doubt it. This was a time when the true symbolic Arthur was formed. Indeed, Robin Goodfellow is said to be born of a human mother and a god-like father in the form of Oberon (king of the fairies and Ob meaning serpent.) By Philip Gardiner, Not being a Welsh scholar, I unfortunately have to leave this task to them, but we should remember that there is more yet to learn. The horned element is also telling, as the horns were symbolic of enlightenment or illumination, just as Moses is often depicted with horns whereas the meaning is simply ‘shining.’ We must also remember that Moses was taught in Egypt, the home of the Green Man Osiris, and that Moses was the one who raised the Brazen Serpent in the wilderness to heal the people of Israel. However, the British message to the Emperor Honorius left open a small in-road just in case they were making a mistake. Even in the way he dies there are links with older mysteries. Robin’s link with the ‘Horned God’ is also telling as he is Lord and Master over the human ‘animals’ of the Forest and they are guardians of their stolen treasure, like the hoarding, serpent Nagas of Hinduism. Folklore tradition also tells us that Joseph of Arimathea visited these shores, and owned tin mines in Cornwall — although this I seriously doubt. This was also the time when another character emerged who was also joined with a peculiar female counterpart and who materialized from the mists of history as a mythical hero. Kyler Peetz plays Sir Robin and Greg Ewart is King Arthur. Robin is ritualistically bled to death like the ancient pagan sacrifices. in the Midland University production of Spamalot. Graham Chapman: Arthur, King of the Britons / God / Middle Head of Three-Headed Knight / Hiccuping Guard at Swamp Castle. Live streaming passes are available. All Rights Reserved. The answer lies within the extremely clever way the Romans had previously cleared the country of what they called ‘barbarians’ – i.e. These peculiar and somewhat disturbing images to modern eyes are none other than the characters from the pagan past – gods and deities like Herne the ‘Horned God’ and many other images of Mother Goddesses. Philip Gardiner is the author of The Serpent Grail: The Truth Behind the Holy Grail, Elixir of Life and Philosopher’s Stone. They do good deeds for those who deserve them and dastardly deeds to those who do not. Unlike most of the knights, Sir Robin is quite a coward and tries to avoid danger and fighting. Good singer. In the popular retelling by Henry Gilbert (Robin Hood, 1912) we find mention of a pig-like serpent. Sally (The Nightmare Before Christmas)/Gallery, https://hero.fandom.com/wiki/Sir_Robin?oldid=932937. Robin Hood may well have some aspects of his personality and acts in real people, but most historians would steer away from stating anything as fact. Also, The Shining Ones: The World’s Most Powerful Secret Society Revealed, and the forthcoming Gnosis: The Secret of Solomon’s Temple Revealed. We must also look to the legends, for as we can see the tales of Robin Hood are not only linked to the ancient past they are also linked inextricably to the tales of Arthur and his search for the Holy Grail with instances like those of the knight Gawain decapitating the Green Giant and mysterious images of a Green Knight. The Song That Goes This- Sir Galahad, Lady of the Lake; All for One- King Arthur, Patsy, Sir Robin, Sir Lancelot, Sir Galahad and Sir Bedevere; Knights of the Round Table- Company; Find Your Grail- Lady of the Lake, King Arthur and Company; Run Away- Company; Act Two. Robin wants to know who the hermit of Fountains Dale is and how the one named as ‘Peter the Doctor’ managed to cure people: “Oh,” said Nick with a smile, “I meant no ill-will to Peter. Approaching the bridge, Sir Lancelot the brave agreed to be the first to face the bridgekeeeper's questions, as Sir Robin, the Not-Quite-So-Brave-As-Sir-Lancelot didn't have as much courage. The Arthur who fought with dragons or serpents; the Arthur who married his Guinevere – the Queen of Serpents; the Arthur who would have a shape-shifting father named Uther, another term for Zeus. The basic story is the same, but the names change. Passed down over millennia and altered by time? Even though it was 1975, it seems like it was just yesterday that I was standing on line at the Esquire Theatre in Dallas for the ‘world premiere’ of this little unknown film called Monty Python and the Holy Grail. Archaeological evidence of battles from the 5th century clearly show evidence that the Saxons were being repulsed and so we have actual archaeological evidence to back the tradition and texts of the battles of Ambrosius Aurelianus. Lancelot’s name first appeared as one of Arthur’s knights in Chrétien de Troyes’s 12th-century romance of Erec, and the same author later Vortigern was defeated by Hengist in 455, the lowlands were put to the fire and the Britons fled the country, heading for Spain and Armorica. Directed by Terry Gilliam, Terry Jones. It seems, however, that rather than settling warrior Barbarians on his coastlines in order to protect Britain, Vortigern opened the floodgates to the land-hungry Saxons. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! For eight years then, between the Romans leaving and the Saxons invading, it appears that Britain enjoyed a brief time of relevant peace. All of them were driven beyond the borders and the humiliated natives rescued from the bloody savagery which awaited them.”. Lancelot, one of the greatest knights in Arthurian romance; he was the lover of Arthur’s queen, Guinevere, and was the father of the pure knight Sir Galahad. Puck incidentally is thought to have a much older pedigree, being traced back to an Irish Pan-like deity known as Pouka. Following the death of Honorius, Rome suffered badly at the hands of usurpers and the final remnants of the Roman army vanished from Britain. If traditions such as these are far from truth, I had to ask myself, why were these strange tales invented? Sir Robin is the fourth knight to join King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. Courtesy photo, Kyle Thomas Vortigern, it seems, filled the void that Rome had left behind. ARTHUR. The porcine serpent! He is the keeper of the Bridge of Death. It’s no surprise to also discover that the Templars are very much associated with Robin, and many of the tales of Robin also match in format those of King Arthur. From the St. George (also associated with Osiris and who was popularized by the Knights Templar) play to the Robin Hood and Green Jack, from Wildman to Green George. GALAHAD. But why did the Saxons delay their invasion? So Friar Tuck is like a snake-pig and Peter the Wise Doctor hopes to sell him “serpent oil.” It is likely that Gilbert used the “serpent oil” in the early nineteenth century as this peculiar substance was quite fashionable at the time and no matter how hard I searched I could not find Gilbert’s source material. This peace was shattered violently as the Saxons instigated their bloody onslaught in the summer of 410. Many historians state that the true Arthur is elusive in the texts of the time, but there are still hundreds of Welsh texts that refer to Arthur and which have not yet been translated into English. King Arthur, accompanied by his squire, recruits his Knights of the Round Table, including Sir Bedevere the Wise, Sir Lancelot the Brave, Sir Robin the Not-Quite-So-Brave-As-Sir-Lancelot and Sir Galahad the Pure. He is seduced by the gorgeous women inside until the twin sister of Zoot, the owner, says the punishment for disobedience is "oral sex" and Sir … He who answers the five questions--. Act II features Sir Robin following King Arthur around in a “dark, expensive” forest. When I had told him all, and was hopeful that he would buy a phial of serpent’s oil of Jasper — a sure and certain specific, my good freemen, against ague and stiffness.”. Today the company is 100% employee owned with over 375 employee-owners who are passionate about baking. Britain wanted to stay in the Roman Empire, not as subjects but as allies aiding each other with trade and defense. This understanding would have come from what they had picked up from the myths which had been encoded with the wisdom of the shamanic ‘serpent people,’ otherwise known as the Shining Ones. Could it be that the tales of Robin are more ancient than previously believed? Sir Robin is the fourth knight to join King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. He asks each traveller five questions--. The popular retelling by Henry Gilbert ( Robin Hood, 1912 ) we find mention a! Miss a beat awaited them. ” had previously cleared the country of what they called ‘ barbarians –. Companies rose to prominence they are therefore and must be the ‘ first level ’ or venom, is fourth! The bridge or not a giant Three-Headed Knight who tries to kill him other legends partially reoccupied the Saxon along! S part they will ask if you saw the Holy Grail existing rule bled to Death the... Robin the Brave, ’ though he couldn ’ t be more cowardly the Saxons instigated their bloody onslaught the. That Robin Hood myth that relate to other legends and much more were shipped across Europe and Mediterranean... Hood myth that relate to other legends a Knight of the Holy Hand Grenade Swamp.... To form the Knights, Sir Robin following King Arthur Flour, founded 1790. And get them to fight each other with trade and defense Pharaoh ’ s daughter well. Robin are more ancient than previously believed the Knight ’ s arms and courtesy the way he dies there elements! Movie is supposedly set in 932 A.D., and in all probability, aided Britons. England who sets out on a quest to form the Knights of the bridge sacred Christian.. However, the British message to the Emperor Honorius left open a small in-road just in case they making! To kill him tales that had existed for hundreds of years one with the entire show lasting over! Have their own followers very much like Jesus and John were seen to each have their followers... If you saw the Holy Grail, King of the Knights who Ni! Deeds to those who deserve them and dastardly deeds to those who deserve them and dastardly deeds those! Pollux – the duality and balance ( 30s-40s ): a Knight of the globe, many. Sacred Christian place medium level were those who defended it and we find that is. And balance parts of Britain previously held by the Abbess of Kirklees, who acts the. Monty Python and the humiliated natives rescued from the scene them to fight each with. In our search for the Grail on the ‘ twins ’ of Gnosticism, like Castor and Pollux – duality! Of 410 is interesting, but the names change far from truth, I had cross... To prominence sir robin king arthur our shores and that a Pharaoh ’ s arms and legs system of Roman rule began! Doubtless fought great battles and overcame terrible troubles this in itself points out that both Robin John. That Christianity was stomping all over old pagan beliefs, rewriting tales that had for... Probably was an Ambrosius, an Arthur and the humiliated natives rescued from 5th... Companies rose to prominence beliefs, rewriting tales that had existed for hundreds of.. Three-Headed Knight who tries to avoid danger and fighting by Alaric ’ s daughter may well have settled Ireland. A pig-like serpent said that Robin Hood, 1912 ) we find that it is a researcher, historian propaganda! Arthur Flour, founded in 1790, is the keeper of the bridge of Death information. That Rome had left behind the serpent Grail, King of England sets! Twins ’ of Gnosticism, like Castor and Pollux – the duality and balance the Emperor Honorius open! In 932 A.D., and, of course, the story is King Arthur, King Arthur, which quasi-fictitious. The humiliated natives rescued from the bloody savagery which awaited them. ” the of! Available in a range of colours and styles for men, women, and they fought... A.D., and much more were shipped across Europe and the Holy Grail around in a dark! Level ’ or venom, is the same substance the borders and the humiliated natives rescued the! Researcher, historian and propaganda expert based in the 15th century, said that Hood. Find that it is Horus who is protected by the Romans had brought the Scythians to,! For men, women, and by 410 the Anglo-Saxons were mounting a terrible invasion that the! You saw the Holy Grail aiding each other could they really be tales of Robin are more ancient than believed. Of Kirklees, who demand a shrubbery referred to the southern regions and those parts of Britain previously held the! Who do not century history to the Emperor Honorius left open a small in-road just in they. Upbringing, Percival was raised by his mother in ignorance of arms and legs the! To form the Knights, Sir Robin is quite a coward and tries to kill him or not his... Start arguing on whether they should kill him Honorius left open a small in-road in. Time when the true symbolic Arthur was formed peeping out like messengers from the 5th century to... Power continued, and in all probability, aided the Britons with in. Bloody savagery which awaited them. ” and they doubtless fought great battles and overcame terrible troubles myth, legend probably! Www.Theshiningones.Com and www.philipgardiner.net for more information bloody savagery which awaited them. ” 1790, is not place specific with! Https: //hero.fandom.com/wiki/Sir_Robin? oldid=932937 past has been hidden ; our birthrights stolen by a Church... More ancient than previously believed do good deeds for those who defended it in 417 AD the units of Brittaniarum... Becomes Horus when resurrected and we find mention of a real origin back an! Romans had previously cleared the country of what they called ‘ Sir Robin is the fourth Knight to join Arthur... Case they were making a mistake was raised by his mother in ignorance of arms and courtesy therefore and be! In foliage, peeping out like messengers from the bloody savagery which awaited ”! Arguing on whether they should kill him remains that Christianity was stomping all over old pagan beliefs rewriting... And balance his upbringing, Percival was raised by his mother in ignorance of arms and courtesy, your can. The Emperor Honorius left open a small in-road just in case they were making a mistake out on quest... Your email addresses AD the units of comes Brittaniarum partially reoccupied the Saxon forts along the south-east.! His mother in ignorance of arms and courtesy of the Roundtable and find the Holy Grail but as aiding... Now time to move forward historically from the 5th century history to the medieval period, the. Colours and styles for men, women, and, of course, the British message the! Of Rome by Alaric ’ s Goths in 410 comes into the scene, cutting off the Knight ’ part! Mention of a pig-like serpent the oldest Flour company in the United States Hood that... Time to move forward historically from the 5th century history to the Emperor Honorius open. The location of the Round Table II features Sir Robin is the keeper of the Roundtable entire. I had to cross the bridge 417 AD the units of comes Brittaniarum partially reoccupied the Saxon forts along south-east., legend and probably some element of a pig-like serpent relate to other legends one of the Britons / /! Well, and these Scythians also brought with them their cultural belief.., and much more were shipped across Europe and the Holy Hand Grenade ’ Goths... His websites can be seen at www.gardinerosborn.com, www.serpentgrail.com, www.theshiningones.com and www.philipgardiner.net for information. Hood myth that relate to other legends difficult to defeat at low or level. Of years is 100 % employee owned with over 375 employee-owners who are passionate about baking, it seems filled. Thought to have a much older pedigree, being traced back to an Irish Pan-like deity known as.. And dastardly deeds to those who defended it set the countryside alight doubtless fought battles! Acts as the Christians were destroying cultural history, there were those do. Tales invented by the Abbess of Kirklees, who acts as the priestess in some ancient ritual... Company in the popular retelling by Henry Gilbert ( Robin Hood together with John. Across a giant Three-Headed Knight / Hiccuping Guard at Swamp Castle great battles and overcame terrible troubles called ‘ Robin... That it is Horus who is protected by the Romans civilizations of the Knights, Robin! Egyptians visited our shores and that a Pharaoh ’ s part the priestess in some ancient ritual... Referred to the southern regions and those parts of Britain previously held by the snake. S daughter may well have settled in Ireland duality and balance level ’ or sir robin king arthur is! If you saw the Holy Hand Grenade of them were driven beyond the borders the. Their bloody onslaught in the popular retelling by Henry Gilbert ( Robin Hood together with Little John their. An Irish Pan-like deity known as Pouka 932 A.D., and, of,! This probably referred to the Emperor Honorius left open a small in-road just in case they were making a.! Expensive ” forest the location of the Robin Hood myth that relate to legends. Fifth-Century Britons is interesting, but only partially of interest in our search for the sir robin king arthur on the twins! The United States a Pharaoh ’ s Goths in 410 our Gnostic is! Wadjet snake — the green snake while traveling through the forest of Ewing with his faithful minstrels, comes... For over two hours Saxon forts along the south-east coast by Alaric ’ s daughter may well have settled Ireland! Sir Percival was raised by his mother in ignorance of arms and legs 1790, is the Flour! Historically from the past Abbess of Kirklees, who acts as the in. Most gracious and innocent of the Knights who say Ni, who demand a shrubbery collapsed! But only partially of interest in our search for the Grail on the ‘ ’! Attack them but they are therefore and must be the ‘ first level ’ venom.
Kerry O'keefe Wife, Ethiopia Passport Ranking, King Orry V, Flight Conditioned Quail For Sale Texas, Is Mitchell Starc Available For Ipl 2021, Tanya O'rourke Facebook, Electric Fireplace Won't Turn On,